The variable operations and maintenance (O&M) costs are as follows:

Source: "Updated Capital Cost Estimates for Utility Scale Electricity Generating Plants," Energy Information Administration, April 2013, p.6, Table 1. Full report here: See notes below for more context.

U.S. Crude Oil Price
(Dollars per Barrel)
[through November 2014]

Data from:

U.S. Natural Gas Wellhead Price
(Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)
[through December 2012]

Data from:

U.S. Coal Prices
[through May 9, 2008]

Data from:

Uranium Prices
(Ux U3O8 Price $/lb)
[through December 2014]

Data through 12/26/2006 from (The Ux Consulting Company, LLC)
Data since January 2007 from

Uranium prices are projected to reach $150/lb within a year (see 11/29/2007 article)

Ethanol Prices
[through mid-2007]

Source: CA Energy Commission
Based on data from Oxy-Fuel News. Contact Hart Publications and Oxy-Fuel News for data at:

Variable O&M costs include fuel and other consumable materials and supplies; raw water; waste and wastewater disposal expenses; purchased power (incurred inversely to operating hours), demand charges and related utilities; chemicals, catalysts and gases; ammonia for selective catalytic reduction (SCR), as applicable; and lubricants.

To summarize the EIA table in the top two charts above, we did the following:

  • Biomass: used the bubbling fluidized bed type, since combined cycle requires gasification and biomass gasification is highly unusual (most are conventional boilers or fluidized bed)
  • Coal: this is an average of single and dual advanced pulverized coal (the traditional sorts of coal plants that can no longer be built in the U.S.)
  • Geothermal: took the average of the two types
  • Hydroelectric: included only conventional and not pumped hydroelectric (neither of which tends to be proposed)
  • Natural Gas: this is an average of conventional and advanced combined cycle (the typical plants built, since combustion turbines and fuel cells are not commonly proposed)
  • Solar photovoltaic: this is an average of large and small